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The volatile oils from the oleo-gum-resins of Ferula assa-foetida and Ferula gummosa: A comprehensive investigation of their insecticidal activity and eco-toxicological effects

Pavela, Roman, Morshedloo, Mohammad Reza, Lupidi, Giulio, Carolla, Giorgia, Barboni, Luciano, Quassinti, Luana, Bramucci, Massimo, Vitali, Luca A., Petrelli, Dezemona, Kavallieratos, Nickolas G., Boukouvala, Maria C., Ntalli, Nikoletta, Kontodimas, Demetrius C., Maggi, Filippo, Canale, Angelo, Benelli, Giovanni
Food and chemical toxicology 2020 v.140 pp. 111312
Culex quinquefasciatus, Daphnia magna, Eisenia fetida, Ferula assa-foetida, Ferula gummosa, Musca domestica, Prostephanus truncatus, Spodoptera littoralis, Trogoderma granarium, alpha-pinene, beta-phellandrene, beta-pinene, cosmetics, cytotoxicity, disulfides, earthworms, ecotoxicology, essential oils, fibroblasts, foods, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, humans, industrial applications, insect pests, insecticidal properties, organic sulfur compounds, perfumes, public health, storage pests
Since time immemorial, the oleo-gum-resins of Ferula assa-foetida and F. gummosa are used in the traditional medical systems as well as in foodstuffs, perfumery and cosmetics. In the present study, we explored the insecticidal efficacy of the essential oils obtained from these oleo-gum-resins to widen their fields of industrial applications. The two essential oils were mainly composed of sulfides [sec-butyl (Z)-propenyl disulfide, sec-butyl (E)-propenyl disulfide, sec-butyl (Z)-propenyl trisulfide and sec-butyl (E)-propenyl trisulfide)] and monoterpenes (α-pinene, β-pinene and β-phellandrene), respectively, as determined by GC-MS analysis. The two essential oils were assayed for toxicity on a panel of insects, represented by species of public health relevance (Culex quinquefasciatus and Musca domestica), agricultural (Spodoptera littoralis) and stored-product pests (Prostephanus truncatus and Trogoderma granarium). The ecotoxicological effects of the essential oils were assessed on the aquatic microcrustacean Daphnia magna and the earthworm Eisenia fetida, as well as on human cells. Overall, the two essential oils were effective against important insect pests and vectors. On the other hand, they resulted cytotoxic to fibroblasts and non-target aquatic microcrustaceans. Thus, further insights are needed to determine the full spectrum of their eco-toxicological effects.