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Diversity of bacteria and archaea in the groundwater contaminated by chlorinated solvents undergoing natural attenuation

Jin, Decai, Zhang, Fengsong, Shi, Yi, Kong, Xiao, Xie, Yunfeng, Du, Xiaoming, Li, Yanxia, Zhang, Ruiyong
Environmental research 2020 v.185 pp. 109457
Archaea, Flavobacterium, Mycobacterium, Proteobacteria, bacteria, bacterial communities, chemical industry, community structure, dechlorination, dissolved oxygen, genes, groundwater, high-throughput nucleotide sequencing, methane, microbiological risk assessment, oxygen, public health, redox potential, remediation, ribosomal RNA, solvents, species diversity, temperature, wells
Chlorinated solvents (CS)-contaminated groundwater poses serious risks to the environment and public health. Microorganisms play a vital role in efficient remediation of CS. In this study, the microbial community (bacterial and archaeal) composition of three CS-contaminated groundwater wells located at an abandoned chemical factory which covers three orders of magnitude in concentration (0.02–16.15 mg/L) were investigated via 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing. The results indicated that Proteobacteria and Thaumarchaeota were the most abundant bacterial and archaeal groups at the phylum level in groundwater, respectively. The major bacterial genera (Flavobacterium sp., Mycobacterium sp. and unclassified Parcubacteria taxa, etc.) and archaeal genera (Thaumarchaeota Group C3, Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group and Miscellaneous Euryarchaeotic Group, etc.) might be involved in the dechlorination processes. In addition, Pearson's correlation analyses showed that alpha diversity of the bacterial community was not significantly correlated with CS concentration, while alpha diversity of archaeal community greatly decreased with the increased contamination of CS. Moreover, partial Mantel test indicated that oxidation-reduction potential, dissolved oxygen, temperature and methane concentration were major drivers of bacterial and archaeal community composition, whereas CS concentration had no significant impact, indicating that both indigenous bacterial and archaeal community compositions are capable of withstanding elevated CS contamination. This study improves our understanding of how the natural microbial community responds to high CS-contaminated groundwater.