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Mechanism study on the formation of complex between Ca(II) and indigo carmine for potential food use as a colorant lake

Yuan, Dongdong, Lei, Sheng, Gao, Li, Liu, Ya, Liu, Guorong, Wang, Chengtao
Food chemistry 2020 v.322 pp. 126709
Raman spectroscopy, ambient temperature, calcium, calorimetry, dyes, entropy, indigo carmine, infrared spectroscopy, lakes, pH, stoichiometry, sulfonic acids, titration
This study elucidated the formation mechanism of calcium-indigo carmine (IC) complex. Parameters of the complex, such as Turbiscan stability index (TSI), yield and stoichiometric ratio (Ca to IC) were investigated. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), UV/Visible spectrophotometry, infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to explore the interaction between IC and Ca(II) during formation reaction and in the powdered lake. The TSI analysis and yield test suggested pH 7.0 as the most suitable pH to produce this complex. The conjugation between IC and Ca(II) was an exothermal reaction with increase of entropy (ΔH = −0.728 ± 0.11 kJ·mol⁻¹ and ΔS = 66.55 ± 1.89 kJ·mol⁻¹·K⁻¹ at 25 °C). Both ITC and stoichiometric ratio test suggested one Ca atom tended to conjugate five IC molecules at ambient temperature when an adequate amount of Ca(II) appeared. Spectrometry techniques suggested that the sulfonic acid groups in IC formed coordination bonds with the Ca to construct the complex.