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Patients with chronic kidney disease are not well adhered to dietary recommendations: a cross-sectional study

Gebretsadik, Gebretsadkan Gebremedhin, Mengistu, Zelalem Debebe, Molla, Birhanu Worku, Desta, Helen Tkuwab
BMC nutrition 2020 v.6 no.1 pp. 14
animal proteins, blood, computer software, creatinine, cross-sectional studies, data analysis, dietary protein, dietary recommendations, eating habits, energy intake, food composition, food intake, glomerular filtration rate, hemodialysis, interviews, kidney diseases, medical records, mortality, nutrient databanks, nutrients, patients, phosphorus, potassium, protein intake, urea
BACKGROUND: Nutrition and dietary patterns are modifiable factors that can be utilized to prevent or slow the progression of Chronic kidney disease (CKD). Adherence to current dietary recommendations can reduce the incidence, or slow the progression of CKD and reduce mortality. The objectives of this study was to compare the dietary nutrient intake of CKD patients (CKD above stage 3 including hemodialysis) to dietary recommendations and to assess the correlations of those dietary nutrient intakes with each other and with chosen laboratory measurements. METHODS: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 patients with CKD. A consecutive 7 days dietary record supplemented with interviews for data completion was used to assess dietary intake. Recent clinical laboratory measurements were obtained from patients’ medical records. The obtained dietary data were analyzed by the Ethiopian food composition database and the nutrisurvey software. Dietary energy and nutrients intake were compared with recommendations for CKD patients. RESULTS: The dietary energy intake (DEI) of almost all patients was below recommended levels. The average Dietary protein intake (DPI) was above the recommended levels (0.95 ± 0.27 g/kg/day) for about 60% of the respondents. Besides, 38% and only two of the respondents had their dietary phosphorus and potassium intakes above recommended levels, respectively. Estimated Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was positively correlated with both total and animal protein intakes while blood levels of creatinine and urea were negatively correlated with animal protein intake. CONCLUSION: Patients with CKD are not well adhered to dietary recommendations and some nutrients showed correlation with chosen clinical laboratory measurements. Besides, DEI and DPI were below and above recommended levels, respectively, for most patients. Besides, more than one-third of the participants had phosphorus intakes above recommendation. These non-optimal dietary nutrient intakes may contribute to fast clinical deterioration and mortality.