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Impacts of elevated pCO2 on Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis): Metal bioaccumulation, physiological and cellular parameters
- Sezer, Narin, Kılıç, Önder, Sıkdokur, Ercan, Çayır, Akın, Belivermiş, Murat
- Marine environmental research 2020 v.160 pp. 104987
- Mytilus galloprovincialis, acid-base balance, adults, bioaccumulation, biochemical pathways, cadmium, carbon dioxide, carbon dioxide enrichment, cell viability, depuration, filtration, greenhouse gas emissions, hemocytes, juveniles, mussels, nucleic acids, ocean acidification, seawater, silver, tissue distribution
- Ocean acidification alters physiology, acid-base balance and metabolic activity in marine animals. Near future elevated pCO₂ conditions could be expected to influence the bioaccumulation of metals, feeding rate and immune parameters in marine mussels. To better understand such impairments, a series of laboratory-controlled experiment was conducted by using a model marine mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis. The mussels were exposed to three pH conditions according to the projected CO₂ emissions in the near future (one ambient: 8.10 and two reduced: 7.80 and 7.50). At first, the bioconcentration of Ag and Cd was studied in both juvenile (2.5 cm) and adult (5.1 cm) mussels by using a highly sensitive radiotracer method (¹¹⁰ᵐAg and ¹⁰⁹Cd). The uptake and depuration kinetics were followed 21 and 30 days, respectively. The biokinetic experiments demonstrated that the effect of ocean acidification on bioconcentration was metal-specific and size-specific. The uptake, depuration and tissue distribution of ¹¹⁰ᵐAg were not affected by elevated pCO₂ in both juvenile and adult mussels, whereas ¹⁰⁹Cd uptake significantly increased with decreasing pH in juveniles but not in adults. Regardless of pH, ¹¹⁰ᵐAg accumulated more efficiently in juvenile mussels than adult mussels. After executing the biokinetic experiment, the perturbation was sustained by using the same mussels and the same experimental set-up, which enabled us to determine filtration rate, haemocyte viability, lysosomal membrane stability, circulating cell-free nucleic acids (ccf-NAs) and protein (ccf-protein) levels. The filtration rate and haemocyte viability gradually decreased by increasing pCO₂ level, whereas the lysosomal membrane stability, ccf-NAs, and ccf-protein levels remained unchanged in the mussels exposed to elevated pCO₂ for eighty-two days. This study suggests that acidified seawater partially shift metal bioaccumulation, physiological and cellular parameters in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.