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The livestock growth-promoter zeranol facilitates GLUT4 translocation in 3T3 L1 adipocytes
- Tan, Yan Qin, Li, Qing, Wang, Lin, Chiu-Leung, Leo C., Leung, Lai K.
- Chemosphere 2020 v.253 pp. 126772
- Fusarium, Western blotting, acceptable daily intake, adipocytes, confocal microscopy, energy metabolism, fungi, glucose, glucose transporters, growth promotion, health effects assessments, humans, insulin, insulin receptor substrate proteins, livestock, metabolites, mycotoxins, signal transduction, zeranol, North America
- Zeranol is an approved but controversial growth-promoting agent for livestock in North America. It is a mycotoxin metabolite secreted by the Fusarium family fungi. The regulatory bodies in this region have established the acceptable daily intake and exposure below the level would not significantly increase the health risk for humans. However, their European counterparts have yet to establish an acceptable level and do not permit the use of this agent in farm animals. Given the growth-promoting ability of zeranol, its effect on energy metabolism was investigated in the current study. Our results indicated that zeranol could induce glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) expression in 3T3 L1 cells at 10 μM and initiate the translocation of the glucose transporter to the membrane as assayed by confocal microscopy. The translocation was likely triggered by the increase of GLUT4 and p-Akt. The insulin signal transduction pathway of glucose translocation was analyzed by Western blot analysis. Since no increase in the phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate in zeranol-treated cells was evidenced, the increased p-Akt and GLUT4 amount should be the mechanism dictating the GLUT4 translocation. In summary, this study showed that zeranol could perturb glucose metabolism in differentiated 3T3 L1 adipocytes. Determining the growth-promoting mechanism is crucial to uncover an accepted alternative to the general public.