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Maturity and Storage Influence on the Apple (Malus domestica) Allergen Mal d 3, a Nonspecific Lipid Transfer Protein
- Sancho, A.I., Foxall, R., Rigby, N.M., Browne, T., Zuidmeer, L., Ree, R. van, Waldron, K.W., Mills, E.N.C.
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2006 v.54 no.14 pp. 5098-5104
- apples, allergens, plant proteins, binding proteins, peels, cultivars, food storage, controlled atmosphere storage, ripening
- Consumption of apples can provoke severe allergic reactions, in susceptible individuals, due to the presence of the allergen Mal d 3, a nonspecific lipid transfer protein, found largely in the fruit skin. Levels of Mal d 3 were determined in peel as a function of apple cultivar, position of the fruit growing on the tree, apple maturity, and postharvest storage by ELISA. As the apples mature, Mal d 3 levels increased, although the rate was dependent on cultivar and tree position. During storage, levels of Mal d 3 decreased in all cultivars (cvs. Cox, Jonagored, and Gala), the rate of overall decrease being greatest under controlled atmosphere conditions. There was no correlation between Mal d 3 levels and total apple peel protein, indicating specific alterations in Mal d 3 expression. Thus pre- and postharvest treatments (i.e., storage) can modify the allergen load in apple peel, the highest levels being found in overly mature and freshly harvested fruits.