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Effects of hydrolyzed fish protein and autolyzed yeast as substitutes of fishmeal in the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) diet, on fish intestinal microbiome

Rimoldi, S., Gini, E., Koch, J. F. A., Iannini, F., Brambilla, F., Terova, G.
BMC veterinary research 2020 v.16 no.1 pp. 118
Alteromonadales, Bacillus (bacteria), Clostridiales, DNA barcoding, Enterobacteriales, Lactobacillus, Sparus aurata, Staphylococcus, aquaculture feeds, bacteria, beneficial microorganisms, brewers yeast, carbohydrates, digestive system, fish, fish meal, fish protein hydrolysate, genes, hydrolysis, ingredients, intestinal microorganisms, microbial communities, nitrogen, nutritional intervention, protein sources, ribosomal RNA, short chain fatty acids, tanks, vegetables
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the effects of partial substitution of dietary fishmeal (FM) with either fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) or autolysed dried yeast (HiCell®, Biorigin, Brazil) on intestinal microbiota of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). A total number of 720 fish of 122.18 ± 6.22 g were fed for 92 days with three different diets in triplicate (3 tanks/diet). A diet based on FM/vegetable meal was used as control. The other two diets were formulated by replacing FM with 5% of either FPH or HiCell®. To analyze the gut microbiota associated to autochthonous and allochthonous microbial communities, the Illumina MiSeq platform for sequencing of 16S rRNA gene and QIIME pipeline were used. RESULTS: A total number of 102 OTUs (operational taxonomic units) at 97% identity were identified in fish gut samples collected at the end of feeding trial. Fourteen OTUs constituted the core gut microbiota, i.e. those OTUs found in at least nine out of fifteen samples per group and shared regardless of the diet. Eight OTUs were assigned to Firmicutes represented by Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus, and Bacillus genera, and six to Proteobacteria phylum. Dietary dried yeast autolysate modulated the intestinal microbiota by promoting the growth of some beneficial bacteria. At order level, fish fed yeast showed an enrichment in Bacillales and Clostridiales as compared to the control group, whereas fish fed FPH showed a significantly lower amount of bacteria belonging to Alteromonadales and Enterobacteriales than the other two feeding groups. Although we did not observe any effect of 5% FM replacement with alternative nitrogen sources at phylum level, at lower taxonomical levels, the composition of gut microbiota, in terms of relative abundance of specific taxa, was significantly influenced by the dietary treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The metabarcoding analysis revealed a clearly intestinal microbiota modulation in response to dietary autolyzed yeast. The abundance of some beneficial bacteria, i.e. indigestible carbohydrate degrading- and SCFA producing bacteria, was positively affected. Brewer’s yeast autolysate could be a valid alternative protein source to FM as well as a valid functional ingredient for aquafeed production.