U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.


Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.


Main content area

Feeding of yeast cell wall extracts during a necrotic enteritis challenge enhances cell growth, survival and immune signaling in the jejunum of broiler chickens

Casey N. Johnson, Mohammed M. Hashim, Christopher A. Bailey, James A. Byrd, Michael H. Kogut, Ryan J. Arsenault
Poultry science 2020 v.99 no.6 pp. 2955-2966
Clostridium perfringens, Infectious bursal disease virus, antibiotics, apoptosis, beta-glucans, broiler chickens, cell growth, cell walls, chicken industry, disease severity, duodenum, economic impact, feed additives, ileum, immune response, immunomodulation, inflammation, jejunum, models, necrotic enteritis, peptides, phosphorylation, tissues, vaccines, weight gain, yeasts
Necrotic enteritis (NE) is one of the most common and costly diseases in the modern broiler industry, having an estimated economic impact of $6 billion dollars annually. Increasing incidents of NE have resulted from restrictions on the use of antibiotic feed additives throughout the broiler industry. As such, finding effective antibiotic alternatives has become a priority. In this study, an experimental model of NE was used, comprising a commercial infectious bursal disease virus vaccine and Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) inoculation. Yeast cells wall (YCW) components, β-glucan (BG), and mannoproteins (MPTs) were evaluated for their effects on disease development. Chicken-specific immunometabolic kinome peptide arrays were used to measure differential phosphorylation between control (uninfected), challenged (infected), and challenged and treated birds in duodenal, jejunal, and ileal tissues. Treatment groups included crude YCW preparation, BG, MPT, or BG+MPT as feed additives. Data analysis revealed kinome profiles cluster predominantly by tissue, with duodenum showing the greatest relative signaling and jejunum showing the greatest response to treatment. BG, MPT, and BG+MPT cluster together, separate from controls and challenge birds in each tissue. Changes in signaling resulting from the treatments were observed in cell growth and survival responses as well as immune responses. None of the treatments of disease challenge returned the profiles to control-like. This is attributable to immune modulation and metabolic effects of the treatments generating distinct profiles from control. Importantly, all the treatments are distinct from the challenge group despite being challenged themselves. Only BG+MPT treatment had a significant effect on bird weight gain compared with the NE challenge group, and this treatment had the greatest impact on gut tissue signaling in all segments. The signaling changes elicited by BG+MPT during an NE challenge were increased cell growth and survival signaling, reducing cell death, apoptosis and innate inflammatory responses, and generating compensatory signaling to reduce disease severity.