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Dumped munitions: New insights into the metabolization of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in Baltic flatfish

Koske, Daniel, Goldenstein, Nadine I., Rosenberger, Timothy, Machulik, Ulrike, Hanel, Reinhold, Kammann, Ulrike
Marine environmental research 2020 v.160 pp. 104992
Limanda limanda, Platichthys flesus, Pleuronectes platessa, cytochrome P-450, enzyme inhibition, flounder, in vitro studies, inhibitory concentration 50, liver, metabolism, metabolites, models, monitoring, trinitrotoluene, unspecific monooxygenase, waste disposal sites, xenobiotics, Baltic Sea
Livers from dab (Limanda limanda), plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) and flounder (Platichthys flesus) sampled from the Baltic Sea were used to determine the interaction of flatfish CYP1A enzymes with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in vitro. Competitive inhibition of 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and 7-methoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (MROD) could be demonstrated for all three flatfish species. The highest inhibition of CYP1A activities was measured in liver samples of flounder resulting in a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) of 28.1 μM TNT. Due to their lower inhibition (EROD IC₅₀ 65.2 μM TNT, MROD IC₅₀ 40.3 μM TNT), dab liver samples were used to conduct in vitro metabolization experiments with TNT. The metabolization of TNT in fish was investigated with post-mitochondrial fractions (PMF) of dab liver as a model system after adding different cofactors. Rapid and time-dependent enzymatic degradation of TNT was observed. The concentrations of 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene and 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene increased in the samples over time. Additionally, 2,2,6,6-tetranitro-4,4-azoxytoluene was detected in one sample. The results of this study indicate that in vitro experiments are useful to investigate the xenobiotic metabolism of fish under controlled conditions prior to field studies. The metabolites found can serve as target compounds for marine monitoring of TNT contamination in munition dumpsites.