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An improved enzyme preparation for rapid mass production of protoplasts as seed stock for aquaculture of macrophytic marine green algae

Reddy, C.R.K., Dipakkore, S., Kumar, G.R., Jha, B., Cheney, D.P., Fujita, Y.
Aquaculture 2006 v.260 no.1-4 pp. 290-297
Ulva, Enteromorpha, Monostroma, macroalgae, macrophytes, protoplasts, cellulases
Preparation of protoplasts and their subsequent applications for both basic and applied research of marine macroalgae remains largely under developed due to lack of development of reliable methods with consistent yields of viable protoplasts. An improved enzyme preparation with a single commercial enzyme, e.g. 2% Cellulase Onozuka R-10 in 1% NaCl solution, was developed to produce protoplasts rapidly from different green algal genera of Ulva, Enteromorpha and Monostroma. The simple dissolution of enzyme powder in 1% NaCl resulted in exclusion of 2% Macerozyme R-10 from the mixture consisting of 2% Cellulase Onozuka R-10 with 3% NaCl earlier reported as superior for the same algae. Optimal conditions for the isolation of maximum yields of viable protoplasts were found to be with 2% Cellulase Onozuka R-10 incubated at 20 °C for 2 h in 1% NaCl solution with 0.8 M mannitol adjusted to pH 6.0. The protoplast yield with optimized enzyme mixture was as high as 102.8 x 10(6) cells g-1 f. wt for M. oxyspermum while it was in the range of 74.4-88.6 x 10(6) cells g-1 f. wt thallus for seven species of Ulva, and 82.5-95.4 x 10(6) cells g-1 f. wt for three species of Enteromorpha. The regeneration rate of protoplasts isolated using this method ranged from 89 to 92% with normal morphogenesis. The seeding of nylon threads with isolated protoplasts of M. oxyspermum was successful and after 3-4 weeks the entire frame with nylon threads became thick green in color with tiny germlings in laboratory culture. Thus, the method described in the present study allow for rapid mass production of viable protoplasts that could be potentially used as a source for seed material for mariculture and for other applied phycological research.