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Extenders and cryoprotectants for cooling and freezing of piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus) semen, an endangered Brazilian teleost fish

Maria, A.N., Viveiros, A.T.M., Freitas, R.T.F., Oliveira, A.V.
Aquaculture 2006 v.260 no.1-4 pp. 298-306
fertilization (reproduction), Characiformes, endangered species, semen, cold storage, frozen storage, semen extenders, cryoprotectants, sperm motility, fish eggs, hatching, animal reproduction, Brazil
The aim of this study was to develop a protocol for semen storage of piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus) by both cool storage at 4 °C and cryopreservation at -196 °C. Semen was diluted in some fish semen extenders (Exp. 1) or in extenders combined with the antibiotic gentamycin sulfate (Exp. 2) and stored at 4 °C. Sperm motility was estimated every 24 h. Then, the effects of egg yolk (0 and 5%), cryoprotectants (dimethyl sulphoxide-DMSO, methanol, and methylglycol) and extenders (NaCl 154 mM, BTS Minitub and M III Minitub) on semen cryopreservation were evaluated (Exp. 3). Semen was added to each of eighteen cryosolutions (2 yolk concentrations x 3 cryoprotectants x 3 extenders), aspirated into 0.5-mL straws, frozen in nitrogen vapor (Taylor-Wharton, CP 300, “dry shipper”) and stored at -196 °C. Sperm motility was evaluated after thawing at 60 °C-water bath for 8 s. The three cryosolutions that produced the highest post-thaw sperm motility were used again to freeze semen. Post-thaw semen quality was then evaluated under three tests: sperm motility, the percentage of live spermatozoa and hatching rate (Exp. 4). Piracanjuba semen diluted (1:10 total volume) in NaCl 200 mM or in Saad solution (NaCl 200 mM, Tris 30 mM) maintained motility above 35% for as long as 7 days, at 4 °C. Motility of only 7% was observed on undiluted semen after 3 days at 4 °C. There was neither beneficial nor detrimental effect of gentamycin on sperm motility at 250 μg/mL. Egg yolk addition to the cryosolution was beneficial in samples cryopreserved in NaCl 154 mM and in M III, but detrimental for samples cryopreserved in BTS. Methylglycol was the most effective cryoprotector compared to DMSO and methanol. Motility and percentage of live spermatozoa were similar among semen cryopreserved in NaCl-yolk, M III-yolk and BTS, all containing 10% methylglycol, but lower than fresh control. Hatching rates of eggs fertilized with sperm cryopreserved in NaCl-yolk or BTS were higher than for eggs fertilized with sperm cryopreserved in M III-yolk, but lower than control fertilizations. The semen cryopreservation protocols developed here will be used to set up a gene bank for endangered piracanjuba populations.