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Comparison of Cardioprotective Abilities between the Flesh and Skin of Grapes
- Falchi, M., Bertelli, A., Lo Scalzo, R., Morassut, M., Morelli, R., Das, S., Cui, J., Das, D.K.
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2006 v.54 no.18 pp. 6613-6622
- grapes, polyphenols, fruit composition, anthocyanins, cardioprotective effect, antioxidants, antioxidant activity, free radicals, reactive oxygen species, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, myocardial ischemia, rats
- Recent studies have documented that grapes and grape juices are equally cardioprotective as red wine. The existing reports implicate that the skin and seeds of the grapes containing polyphenolic antioxidants are instrumental for the cardioprotective properties of grapes. The present study examines if the flesh of grapes also possesses any cardioprotective abilities. Three groups of randomly selected rats were fed, water only (control), flesh of the grapes (2.5 mg/kg b. wt.) or the skins (2.5 mg/kg b. wt.) for 30 days. At the end of the 30 days, isolated perfused hearts were made ischemic for 30 min followed by 2 h of reperfusion in the working mode. The results demonstrated that both flesh and skin of the grapes could protect the hearts from ischemic reperfusion injury as evidenced by improved postischemic ventricular recovery and reduced myocardial infarct size. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) revealed that skin and flesh contained comparative amounts of glucose, fructose, tartaric acid, malic acid, shikimic acid, and trans-caftaric acid. In addition, the flesh contained reduced amounts (compared to skin) of cis-coutaric, trans-coutaric, caffeic, p-coumaric, cinnamics, and catechin/epicatechin. Total polyphenolic index was also lower in flesh compared to skin. The anthocyanins were present exclusively in the skin. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry of hydroxy radicals indicated that both flesh and skins possessed equal amount of ROS scavenging activities. Total malonaldehyde content in the heart was reduced comparatively with either flesh or skin. The results indicate for the first time that the flesh of grapes are equally cardioprotective as skin, and antioxidant potential of skin and flesh of grapes are comparable with each other despite of the fact that flesh does not possess any anthocyanin activities.