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Influence of lipid level and supplemental lecithin in diet on growth, feed utilization and body composition of juvenile flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) in suboptimal water temperatures
- Kim, K.D., Kim, K.M., Kim, K.W., Kang, Y.J., Lee, S.M.
- Aquaculture 2006 v.251 no.2-4 pp. 484-490
- Paralichthys olivaceus, flounder, animal growth, feed conversion, body composition, fish feeding, feeds, feed composition, fatty acid composition, dietary fat, lipid content, feed supplements, phosphatidylcholines, water temperature
- This study was conducted to investigate the influence of dietary lipid level and supplemental soy lecithin on growth, feed utilization and body composition of juvenile flounder reared at two suboptimal water temperatures, 12 and 17 °C. Three isonitrogenous (CP 50%) diets containing 1% squid liver oil (S7), 7% squid liver oil (S14), and a mixture of 2% soy lecithin and 5% squid liver oil (SL14) were formulated to obtain 7% and 14% of crude lipid. Triplicate groups of fish (6.3 ± 0.2 g) were fed to apparent satiation twice a day for 60 days. Weight gain, daily feed intake, feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio were significantly higher for fish reared at 17 °C than at 12 °C. Daily feed intake was significantly decreased with the increase of dietary lipid level at the same water temperature, but weight gain was not affected by dietary lipid composition. At 12 °C, feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio were significantly higher for fish fed the S14 and SL14 diets than those of fish fed the S7 diet, while at 17 °C feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio of fish fed the S14 diet, which were not significantly different from those of fish fed the SL14 diet, were significantly higher than those of fish fed the S7 diet. There were no significant effects of dietary lipid composition or temperature range on the whole body contents of moisture, crude protein, lipid or ash. Dietary lipid composition and temperature affected the fatty acid content of the polar lipid from the liver; and the n-3HUFA contents such as 20:5n-3 and 20:6n-3 were higher at 12 °C than at 17 °C. The results of this study indicate that an increase of dietary lipid level from 7% to 14% has beneficial effects on feed utilization of flounder when reared in suboptimal water temperatures. The increase of water temperature from 12 to 17 °C improved growth and feed utilization, but 2% soy lecithin had no substantial effect on growth and feed efficiency of juvenile flounder.