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Dietary magnesium and fiber intakes and inflammatory and metabolic indicators in middle-aged subjects from a population-based cohort

Bo, Simona, Durazzo, Marilena, Guidi, Sabrina, Carello, Monica, Sacerdote, Carlotta, Silli, Barbara, Rosato, Rosalba, Cassader, Maurizio, Gentile, Luigi, Pagano, Gianfranco
American journal of clinical nutrition 2006 v.84 no.5 pp. 1062-1069
human diseases, inflammation, metabolic syndrome, noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, risk factors, disease prevalence, diet, nutrient intake, dietary fiber, dietary minerals, magnesium, epidemiological studies, cohort studies, middle-aged adults, food frequency questionnaires, quantitative analysis, biomarkers, C-reactive protein, body mass index, multivariate analysis, correlation, probability analysis
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (DM), metabolic syndrome (MetS), and inflammation are linked to reduced magnesium and fiber intakes; these associations are attenuated by adjustment for each of these nutrients. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association among magnesium and fiber intakes, metabolic variables, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) values. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analyses were performed in a representative cohort of 1653 adults and in a subgroup with normal body mass index without dysmetabolisms (n = 205). A validated semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire was used; magnesium intake was computed by multiplying its content in each food by the frequency of food consumption. RESULTS: The prevalence of DM, MetS, and hs-CRP >= 3 mg/L significantly decreased from the lowest to the highest tertile of magnesium and fiber intakes. Subjects within the lowest tertiles of magnesium and fiber intakes were 3-4 times as likely to have DM, MetS, and hs-CRP >= 3 mg/L, after multiple adjustments. After the analysis was additionally controlled for fiber intake, associations with hs-CRP >= 3 mg/L proved to be significant (odds ratio: 2.05; 95% CI: 1.30, 3.25), whereas reduced magnesium intake and DM and MetS were no longer significant. The lowest tertile of fiber intake remained associated with DM, hs-CRP >= 3 mg/L, and MetS after adjustments for multiple confounders and magnesium intake. In the lean, healthy subject subgroup, hs-CRP values were inversely associated with magnesium and fiber intakes in a multivariate model (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Reduced fiber intake was significantly associated with metabolic abnormalities; the magnesium effect might be confounded by fiber being in foods that also provided magnesium. Lower magnesium and fiber intakes were linked to hs-CRP >= 3 mg/L in both the entire cohort and healthy persons.