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Effect of Shading on Accumulation of Flavonoid Compounds in (Vitis vinifera L.) Pinot Noir Fruit and Extraction in a Model System
- Cortell, J.M., Kennedy, J.A.
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2006 v.54 no.22 pp. 8510-8520
- Vitis vinifera, wine cultivars, wine grapes, fruit growing, shade, fruit composition, flavonoids, flavonols, proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins, seeds, extraction, model food systems, wines
- Accumulation and compositional changes of flavonols, proanthocyanidins, and anthocyanins were measured in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot noir in shaded and exposed treatments. In addition, extraction of these compounds into a model wine solution was measured. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard within a uniform zone of relatively low vigor vines. Light exclusion boxes were installed on pairs of clusters on the same shoot (shaded treatment), and a second set of clusters on an adjacent shoot were labeled as the exposed treatment. Fruit samples were harvested at the onset of ripening (véraison) and at commercial harvest. Cluster shading resulted in a substantial decrease in mg/berry accumulation of flavonols and skin proanthocyanidins and minimal differences in anthocyanins. In analyzing seed proanthocyanidins by phloroglucinolysis, shaded and exposed treatments were similar at véraison; however, by harvest, the shaded treatment had higher extension and terminal subunits (nmol/seed) as compared to the exposed treatment. For skin proanthocyanidins, shaded fruit was lower for all subunits (nmol/berry) at both véraison and harvest. Shading caused an increase in the proportion of (-)-epicatechin and a decrease in (-)-epigallocatechin at harvest in skin extension subunits. Seed proanthocyanidins in shaded fruit contained a lower proportion of (+)-catechin and a higher proportion of (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate in extension subunits and a lower proportion of (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate and a higher proportion of (-)-epicatechin in terminal subunits. For anthocyanins, the shaded treatment had a proportional reduction in delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, and malvidin and a large increase in peonidin glucosides. The model extractions from the two treatments paralleled differences in the fruit with a lower concentration of flavonols, anthocyanins, and proanthocyanidins in the shaded treatment. The skin proanthocyanidin percent extraction was found to be ~17% higher in the exposed model extraction than the shaded treatment.