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Life cycle of rice: Challenges and choices for Bangladesh
- Roy, P., Shimizu, N., Okadome, H., Shiina, T., Kimura, T.
- Journal of food engineering 2007 v.79 no.4 pp. 1250-1255
- rice, food processing, production costs, environmental impact, energy use and consumption, carbon dioxide, gas emissions, cost effectiveness, parboiling, nutritive value, shelf life, biofuels, cooking utensils, life cycle assessment, Bangladesh
- Life cycle of rice (produced by vessel, medium-boiler and untreated process) was evaluated to determine environmental load and production cost of rice in Bangladesh. All the production processes have a negative effect on the environment and the environmental load varies from process to process. The inventory results (energy consumption and CO2 emission) gradually decreased from the vessel to the untreated process (vessel > medium-boiler > untreated). The untreated process was found to be both the environmentally sustainable and cost effective process compared to the others, if milled rice is consumed instead of head rice (whole kernels after milling). A change in production process and consumption pattern (parboiled to untreated rice) would help to conserve 8-29% primary energy (biomass) and abate 2.5-9.6 million tons CO2 emission per year in Bangladesh.