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Stability of 3D printing using a mixture of pea protein and alginate: Precision and application of additive layer manufacturing simulation approach for stress distribution

Oyinloye, Timilehin Martins, Yoon, Won Byong
Journal of food engineering 2021 v.288 pp. 110127
alginates, deformation, enthalpy, geometry, hardness, manufacturing, models, pea protein, rheology, storage modulus, texture, three-dimensional printing
Printability of materials is the foundation for extrusion-based 3D printing, with residual stress being a major challenge towards the printing of complex geometry. In this report, the analysis of five blend ratios of alginate and pea protein solutions were investigated for an optimum 3D printing material mixture ratio by probing its rheology, thermal, and textural properties. The thermal (enthalpy from 636.20 to 2202.53 J/g), rheology (storage modulus of 633.32–1303.89 Pa at 2 °C/min heating rate) and textural (hardness from 73.06 to 159.85 N) characteristics of the material increased with increasing pea-protein concentration. These properties influenced the extrusion behavior during 3D printing. The optimum 3D printing material (alginate to pea protein 80:20) was used for additive-layer manufacturing (ALM) simulation to investigate the optimum printing conditions. The residual-stress component and total deformation across the printed sample is dependent on the deposit thickness, with its stress value ranging from 3.9×10−3 to 7.1×10−3 Pa for 0.20–1.00 mm deposit thickness, respectively. The stress led to sample deformation that is noticeable in dimensional deviations from the designed model. ALM simulation, therefore, shows a great advantage in optimizing the printing conditions when used for the 3D printing of complex geometries.