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Fructose vs glucose decreased liking/wanting and subsequent intake of high-energy foods in young women

Ao, Hua, Li, Jiachun, Li, Ouwen, Su, Manyi, Gao, Xiao
Nutrition research 2020 v.78 pp. 60-71
added sugars, beverages, biochemical pathways, decision making, energy intake, food intake, fructose, glucose, high energy foods, humans, ideal body weight, metabolic syndrome, obesity, risk factors, women
Recent research on the health impacts of added sugar has prompted the comparison of the effects of its 2 major components: glucose and fructose. Fructose was identified as a risk factor for obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, because of the differences in metabolic responses and responsivity of reward circuitry to palatable food, it is unknown if glucose and fructose induce similar appetite-related responses in humans with varying weights. This study compared the behavioral responses to food in young women of a healthy weight (n = 31) and with excess weight (n = 28). We hypothesized that (1) the inhibitory effect of glucose (vs fructose) on food-related responses would be greater in subjects of a healthy weight than in those with overweight/obesity and (2) subjects with overweight/obesity would exhibit a stronger preference for food than subjects with a healthy weight. After an overnight fast, the subjects ingested a glucose or equienergetic fructose beverage on 2 separate days, respectively. Then, they completed liking and wanting ratings and 2 decision-making tasks followed by ad libitum food intake. The results revealed that fructose reduced both liking and wanting for food in subjects with overweight/obesity and also decreased energy intake in all subjects. Relative to the healthy-weight group, subjects with overweight/obesity preferred the immediate reward. Moreover, only in the healthy-weight group were liking and wanting scores for food positively associated with actual food consumption. Overall, fructose (vs glucose) showed an acute inhibitory effect on appetite-related responses in subjects with excess weight.