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Element concentrations in meals from krill and amphipods, -- Possible alternative protein sources in complete diets for farmed fish

Moren, M., Suontama, J., Hemre, G.I., Karlsen, O., Olsen, R.E., Mundheim, H., Julshamn, K.
Aquaculture 2006 v.261 no.1 pp. 174-181
fish farms, aspartate transaminase, heavy metals, lead, Euphausia superba, cod (fish), fish feeding, zooplankton, Salmo salar, marine fish, Gadus morhua, alanine transaminase, cadmium, salmon, blood plasma, blood lipids, blood proteins, copper, anadromous fish, arsenic, blood glucose, Amphipoda, feed composition, enzyme activity, fish meal, fish culture, chemical composition, animal growth, krill, animal source protein, zinc, mercury
In the marine environment, organisms from lower trophic levels seem as a good alternative to the traditional meal and oil sources. In the present study, meals were produced from Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba), Arctic krill (Thysanoessa inermis) and the Arctic amphipod Themisto libellula. Diets were then prepared for Atlantic salmon and Atlantic cod where up to 100% of the fish meal protein was replaced by protein from these organisms. Concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) were determined by ICP-MS in the various krill and amphipod meals, complete diets and muscle samples from fish fed these diets. The element concentrations were related to growth and general fish health as well as present EU legislations on feed ingredients and complete diets. The cod showed no difference in growth during the trial, while salmon fed diets where 40% of the fish meal protein was replaced with Arctic krill or amphipod meal shoved improved SGR during the first period of feeding (first 100 days). No adverse effects on growth rate or fish health were observed in any fish species or treatment. Nevertheless, high levels of Cu were found in the meal from Antarctic krill (46 mg kg-1 dry matter (dm)) resulting in a dietary level of Cu exceeding the upper limit for complete feedingstuff set by EU. Furthermore, the Cd level found in the meal from amphipod (12 mg kg-1 dm) was 6 times higher than EU's upper limit. This indicates limitations for the use of certain zooplanktons as alternative protein sources in feed for farmed fish, unless future processing methods yield lower levels of these unwanted elements.