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Occurrence of Ochratoxin A- and Aflatoxin B1-Producing Fungi in Lebanese Grapes and Ochratoxin A Content in Musts and Finished Wines during 2004

Author:
El Khoury, A., Rizk, T., Lteif, R., Azouri, H., Delia, M.L., Lebrihi, A.
Source:
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2006 v.54 no.23 pp. 8977-8982
ISSN:
0021-8561
Subject:
Vitis vinifera, wine grapes, Aspergillus, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium, strains, isolation, ochratoxin A, aflatoxin B1, biosynthesis, grape must, wines, food contamination, microbial contamination, toxigenic strains, Lebanon
Abstract:
This paper reports the results of an extensive survey on the occurrence of filamentous fungi isolated from wine-grapes in Lebanon and to test their ability to produce ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on CYA culture medium, in order to assess their potential for producing these mycotoxins on grapes. From the 470 grapes samples taken during season 2004, 550 fungi strains were isolated with 490 belonging to Aspergillus spp. and 60 belonging to Penicillium spp. All these isolated fungi starins were tested for their ability to produce OTA and AFB1. Aspergillus carbonarius shows that it is the only species able to produce OTA with a production percentage reaching 100% and a maximum concentration of 52.8 microgram/g of Czapek yeast extract agar (CYA). In its turn, Aspergillus flavus was considered as the only AFB1-producing species with production percentage of 45.3% and a maximum concentration reaching 40 microgram/g CYA. A total of 47 handmade musts produced from the collected grapes were also analyzed in order to correlate the presence of OTA in must and the occurrence of filamentous fungi on grapes; 57.4% were contaminated with OTA at low level with concentrations ranging between 0.011 and 0.221 microgram OTA L-1. The analysis of these must samples was not performed with regard to AFB1. Seventy samples of finish red wine were also assayed for OTA content. The results showed that 42 of the tested samples (60%) were found to be positive for OTA with low levels (0.012-0.126 microgram OTA L-1).
Agid:
695803