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Evaluation of the recombinant proteins RlpB and VacJ as a vaccine for protection against Glaesserella parasuis in pigs

Samantha J. Hau, Shi-Lu Luan, Crystal L. Loving, Tracy L. Nicholson, Jinhong Wang, Sarah E. Peters, David Seilly, Lucy A. Weinert, Paul R. Langford, Andrew N. Rycroft, Brendan W. Wren, Duncan J. Maskell, Alexander W. Tucker, Susan L. Brockmeier, on behalf of the BRaDP1T Consortium
BMC veterinary research 2020 v.16 no.1 pp. 167
antibodies, antibody binding sites, cell viability, disease control, host range, hosts, immunity, in vitro studies, interferon-gamma, mutagenesis, organ culture, outer membrane proteins, recombinant proteins, serotypes, subunit vaccines, swine, swine diseases, vaccination, vaccine development
BACKGROUND: Glaesserella parasuis, the causative agent of Glӓsser’s disease, is widespread in swine globally resulting in significant economic losses to the swine industry. Prevention of Glӓsser’s disease in pigs has been plagued with an inability to design broadly protective vaccines, as many bacterin based platforms generate serovar or strain specific immunity. Subunit vaccines are of interest to provide protective immunity to multiple strains of G. parasuis. Selected proteins for subunit vaccination should be widespread, highly conserved, and surface exposed. RESULTS: Two candidate proteins for subunit vaccination (RlpB and VacJ) against G. parasuis were identified using random mutagenesis and an in vitro organ culture system. Pigs were vaccinated with recombinant RlpB and VacJ, outer membrane proteins with important contributions to cellular function and viability. Though high antibody titers to the recombinant proteins and increased interferon-γ producing cells were found in subunit vaccinated animals, the pigs were not protected from developing systemic disease. CONCLUSIONS: It appears there may be insufficient RlpB and VacJ exposed on the bacterial surface for antibody to bind, preventing high RlpB and VacJ specific antibody titers from protecting animals from G. parasuis. Additionally, this work confirms the importance of utilizing the natural host species when assessing the efficacy of vaccine candidates.