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Programmable texture properties of cereal-based snack mediated by 3D printing technology

Derossi, A., Caporizzi, R., Paolillo, M., Severini, C.
Journal of food engineering 2021 v.289 pp. 110160
crushing, dough, hardness, models, novel foods, porosity, satiety, snacks, texture, three-dimensional printing
3D food printing (3DFP) creates edible structures by a layer-by-layer deposition with the main aim of creating personalized food structures. We studied the capability to create 3D printed cereal snacks with different texture by a controlled generation of pores. The snacks well captured the overall features of the virtual model with size reduction less than 8%. Contrarily, the 3D printed snacks exhibited a great increase in porosity fraction, from 5 to 25%, while the pore's length reduced due to the crushing of dough's filament. The hardness of the snacks reduced from 289 N to 84 N following the reduction of the relative density, from 0.569 to 0.401. The model of Gibson and Ashby satisfactory fitted the experimental data showing that printed snacks with controlled voids follow the rule of cellular material. The results open interesting perspectives of creating novel foods with desired texture addressing specific requirements, or novel sensory/satiety perception.