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Anti-diabetic activity of methanol/methylene chloride stem bark extracts of Terminalia superba and Canarium schweinfurthii on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
- Kamtchouing, P., Kahpui, S.M., Djomeni Dzeufiet, P.D., Tedong, L., Asongalem, E.A., Dimo, T.
- Journal of ethnopharmacology 2006 v.104 no.3 pp. 306-309
- Terminalia superba, Canarium, medicinal plants, stems, bark, chemical constituents of plants, plant extracts, medicinal properties, diabetes, hyperglycemia, hypoglycemic agents, bioassays, rats, traditional medicine, ethnobotany, Africa
- Stem bark extracts of Terminalia superba Engl. and Diels and Canarium schweinfurthii Engl. are used in Africa for the treatment of various ailments, including diabetes mellitus. The anti-diabetic effects of the methanol/methylene chloride extracts of the stem barks on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes were evaluated on male rats. Through the subcutaneous route, diabetes was induced using 60 mg/mL of streptozotocin. After 2 days, the rats received, by gavage, 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg of extract daily for 14 days. At 300 mg/kg, the two extracts (Terminalia superba and Canarium schweinfurthii), significantly showed at least 67.1% and 69.9% reduction in blood glucose level, respectively, while insulin (three units) given subcutaneously and once daily, had 76.8% reduction compared to diabetic untreated control rats. Similarly, the weight gains were 6.6% and 4.9%, respectively, and were comparable to the normal rats, whereas, diabetic untreated rats lost 14.1% body weight. Still with the same dose, there was 68.5% and 58.5% (p < 0.001) significant decrease in food consumption and 79.7% and 64.0% (p < 0.001) in fluid intake by diabetic rats treated with the respective plant extracts. The insulin-treated rats showed 56.4% and 75.8% decrease in food and fluid intake compared to an augmentation for diabetic control rats, 43.0% and 383.8%, respectively, at the end of the second week of experimentation. These results showed that the plant extracts can reverse hyperglycemia, polyphagia and polydipsia provoked by streptozotocin, and thus, they have anti-diabetic properties.