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Effects of including triticale on growth performance, digestive enzyme activity, and growth-related genes of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)
- Dawood, Mahmoud A.O., Amer, Asem A., Elbialy, Zizy I., Gouda, Ali H.
- Aquaculture 2020 v.528 pp. 735568
- Oreochromis niloticus, adverse effects, amylases, blood, body weight, carbohydrates, carboxylic ester hydrolases, crude protein, diet, digestive enzymes, enzyme activity, fish, fish feeding, fish feeds, genes, growth performance, immune response, ingredients, insulin-like growth factor I, myostatin, proteinases, superoxide dismutase, triticale
- Triticale is a promising plant ingredient as a source of protein and carbohydrates which is recommended for aquafeed. Therefore, five isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets were formulated to include triticale at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% and fed for Nile tilapia (14.4 ± 0.02 g) for 60 days. The obtained results revealed that no significant linear or quadratic effects were observed on the FBW, WG, and SGR due to using triticale in tilapia diets up to 20% level (P > .05). The FCR was also insignificantly affected by triticale incorporation and represented low values ranged between 1.2 and 1.26 kg diet/kg fish body weight. The body moisture, crude protein, and ash compositions recorded linearly and quadratically insignificant differences among the groups fed varying levels of triticale. However, tilapia fed 20% level of triticale displayed significantly increased ether extract in the whole body (P < .05). The activities of amylase, lipase, and protease were decreased considerably by feeding triticale at 20% (P < .05), whereas tilapia fed triticale at 5, 10, and 15% exhibited insignificant differences with fish fed the control diet. The detected hematological and biochemical blood variables indicated that tilapia fed with or without triticale were in a stable health condition (P > .05). The immunity status revealed insignificant differences among the fish fed varying levels of triticale. However, feeding with triticale increased the activities of SOD and GPx (P < .05), while no differences (P > .05) were shown on the activity of CAT and the concentration of MDA. The incorporation of triticale in tilapia diet did not influence the expressions of IGF-1, FAS, LPL, and myostatin in which probably refers to the regular growth of fish under the current trial conditions (P > .05). In conclusion, the obtained results revealed that using triticale at 5–20% has no adverse effects on the growth performance, blood variables, and immune response of Nile tilapia.