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Effects of Domestic Processing on Steroidal Saponins in Taiwanese Yam Cultivar (Dioscorea pseudojaponica Yamamoto)

Lin, J.T., Liu, S.C., Chen, S.L., Chen, H.Y., Yang, D.J.
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2006 v.54 no.26 pp. 9948-9954
cultivars, microwave cooking, home food preparation, steroid saponins, steaming, food composition, Dioscorea, frying, baking, yams
The effects of domestic processing on steroidal saponins and furostanol and spirostanol glycosides in Taiwanese yam cultivar (Dioscorea pseudojaponica Yamamoto) were studied. The baking or frying of yam slices was conducted at 150, 180, and 200 °C for 3, 5, and 10 min. Yam slices were steamed or microwave cooked at 2450 MHz with an output power of 850 W for 3, 5, and 10 min. The various saponins were quantified by HPLC with an evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD). Results showed that the contents of saponins were decreased along with increasing cooking temperature and time except for the steaming treatment. None of the steamed yam slices significantly change their initial compositions or quantities of furostanol and spirostanol glycosides. Fried yam slices had the highest loss of saponins, especially at 200 °C for 10 min (93 and 97% reductions for total furostanol and spirostanol glycosides, respectively). After baking for 10 min at 200 °C, the total furostanol and spirostanol glycosides were reduced by 67 and 74%, respectively. There were 12, 44, and 84% decreases for total furostanol glycosides and 10, 35, and 75% reductions for total spirostanol glycosides in yam slices after microwave cooking for 3, 5, and 10 min, respectively. Diosgenin, the aglycone of these saponins, could be found in yams after microwave cooking and baking, but not in steamed and fried yams.