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Comparison of composition and physical properties of soluble and insoluble navy bean flour components after jet-cooking, soaking, and cooking

James A. Kenar, Frederick C. Felker, Mukti Singh, Jeffrey A. Byars, Mark A. Berhow, Michael J. Bowman, Jill K. Winkler-Moser
Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie 2020 v.130 pp. 109765
bean flour, centrifugation, color, cooking, foams, functional properties, navy beans, oligosaccharides, phenolic compounds, saponins, soaking, solubilization, starch granules, viscosity, water activity, water solubility, water uptake
Partitioning of pulse flours offers an attractive route to produce novel fractions enriched in valuable components with useful functionality. Navy bean flour was modified by jet-cooking at 140 °C and partitioned by centrifugation into readily obtained water soluble and insoluble fractions. Compositional and physical properties of these fractions were characterized and compared to navy bean flour fractions partitioned by water extraction at 23 °C and 95 °C. Jet-cooking partitioned 49.2% of the flour weight into the soluble fraction that contained 88.8% of the available starch while also solubilizing the highest proportions of phenolics (69.2%) and saponins (58.7%). In contrast, the 23 °C and 95 °C soluble fractions contained only 21.7% and 18.5%, respectively, of the flour weight. The 23 °C-soluble fraction contained no starch and the most soluble protein (45.54 g/100 g) and oligosaccharides (12.4 g/100 g). Swollen starch granules in the 95 °C treatment trapped water soluble components preventing their clean separation into the soluble fraction. Functional properties (color, water activity, water absorption and solubility, viscosity, and foam capacity) reflected starch, protein, sugars, and saponins levels. Understanding the navy bean flour fraction properties derived by jet-cooking allows for their use and innovations in pulse-based foods.