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Phytostimulatory effect of phytochemical fabricated nanosilver (AgNPs) on Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC. seed germination: An insight from antioxidative enzyme activities and genetic similarity studies

V. Kamal Kumar, S. Muthukrishnan, R. Rajalakshmi
Current plant biology 2020 v.23 pp. 100158
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Psophocarpus tetragonolobus, antioxidant enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase, biosynthesis, catalase, chlorophyll, cost effectiveness, dormancy, genetic similarity, leaf extracts, nanosilver, peroxidase, phytochrome, plant protection, polyphenols, seed germination, seedling growth, seedlings, stand establishment, sucrose, superoxide dismutase, surface plasmon resonance, toxicity, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, vigor
Application of nanotechnology in agriculture aims to reduce the usage of plant protection products, improve the cultivation and increase the growth and yield of crop plants. The present study is the first attempt to biosynthesize a simple, cost-effective and eco-friendly phytochemically capped AgNPs using Psophocarpustetragonolobus (winged bean) leaf extract. The biosynthesized AgNPs were confirmed by UV–vis spectrophotometer with Surface Plasmon Resonance at 430 nm. The XRD pattern and EDX spectrum were confirmed the crystalline nature of biosynthesized AgNPs. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) was confirmed the presence of polyphenols and an aromatic group of protein played an important role in the reduction of AgNO₃ to AgNPs. TheTEM and AFM analysis were confirmed the size of biosynthesized AgNPs was 15.47–20.98 nm. Seed priming is a technique which involves uptake of water by the seed followed by the benefits includes rapid, uniform and increased germination, improved seedling vigor and growth under a broad range of environments resulting in better stand establishment and alleviation of phytochrome induced dormancy in some crops. Winged bean seeds primed with photosynthesized AgNPs50 significantly improved germination percentage (88.33 %), vigor index (2848.44) as compared to hydroprimed and unprimed control. Moreover, AgNPs could enhance antioxidant enzymes like peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and a higher concentration of soluble sugar, soluble protein, sucrose and chlorophyll contents supporting the seedling growth. Furthermore, ISSR markers confirmed the genetic uniformity of nanopriming with AgNPs and the seedling showed normal phenotypical characters without any toxicity. It was concluded that AgNPs50 was the best nanopriming treatment to enhance the germinability, antioxidant enzymes and biochemical activities in P.tetragonolobus.