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Alteration of immunological parameters in infectious bronchitis vaccinated–specific pathogen-free broilers after the use of different infectious bursal disease vaccines

Lupini, Caterina, Quaglia, Giulia, Mescolini, Giulia, Russo, Elisa, Salaroli, Roberta, Forni, Monica, Boldini, Sara, Catelli, Elena
Poultry science 2020 v.99 no.9 pp. 4351-4359
Avian orthoavulavirus 1, CD8-positive T-lymphocytes, Herpesvirales, antibodies, antigen-antibody complex, blood sampling, broiler chickens, bursa of Fabricius, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, flow cytometry, genetic engineering, immune response, inactivated vaccines, infectious bronchitis, infectious bursal disease, live vaccines, serology, specific pathogen-free animals, spleen, surface proteins, turkeys, vaccination, viruses
The vaccines currently available to control infectious bursal disease (IBD) include live-attenuated and inactivated vaccines, immune-complex vaccines, and vaccines consisting of viral constructs of herpesvirus of turkeys genetically engineered to express VP2 surface protein. To evaluate the impact of vaccines on the chicken immune system, 2 animal trials were performed in specific pathogen-free broiler chickens. In trial 1, birds were either vaccinated when they are one-day old with a dual recombinant herpes virus of turkey construct vaccine, expressing VP2 protein of (IBDV) and F protein of Newcastle disease virus, or an immune-complex IBDV vaccine or birds were not vaccinated. At 14, 28, and 35 D, the bursa of Fabricius was collected for bursa:body weight (B:BW) ratio calculation. In trial 2, birds were vaccinated when they were 1-day old according to the same protocol as trial 1, but at day 14, all groups also received a live infectious bronchitis (IB) vaccine. At 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after IB vaccination, birds were tested by ELISA for IB serology and, soon after the last blood sampling, they were euthanized for collection of Harderian glands, trachea, and spleen and testing by flow cytometry for characterization of mononuclear cells. The immune-complex vaccine groups showed significantly lower B:BW ratio, lower IBV antibody titers, and higher mean percentage of CD8+ T cells in the spleen, trachea, and Harderian glands than those in the other experimental groups. The results of the in vivo trials coupled with a depth analysis of the repertoire of parameters involved in the immune response to IBD and IB vaccinations show one vaccine may influence the immune response of other vaccines included in the vaccination program.