U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.


Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.


Main content area

Late sowing date as an adaptive strategy for rainfed bean production under warming and reduced precipitation in the Mexican Altiplano?

T. Arredondo, J. Delgado-Balbuena, B. Kimball, M. Luna-Luna, E. Yepez-Gonzalez, E. Huber-Sannwald, E. García-Moya, J. Garatuza-Payan
Field crops research 2020 v.255 pp. 107903
ambient temperature, beans, frost, frost injury, global warming, grain yield, hail, humidity, phenology, plant development, plant growth, plant organs, plant response, rain, rain intensity, rainfed farming, ripening, soil, sowing date, Mexico
In the Mexican Altiplano, beans and corn are the main crops. Conditions favoring hail -- high daily minimum temperature and high rainfall intensity -- are expected to increase under climate change scenarios. If soil humidity remains suitable for plant growth until October, an adaptive strategy to reduce hail and frost damage consist in delaying sowing date. This strategy could permit crop maturation while frost events are delayed later in the year with climate warming. To test whether such a future climate scenario would have a negative effect on crop yield, we tested two sowing dates for rainfed beans, representing regular and delayed sowing along with a decreased precipitation regime (-30 %) and increased +2 °C canopy temperature with respect to ambient conditions. The first sowing in 2015 was completely destroyed at the end of July. Results for 2015, 2017 and 2018 revealed that overall warming favored greater grain yield than ambient temperature (P < 0.05) independent of precipitation. One exception were plots receiving ambient temperature and 70 % of rain in the second sowing date. The positive grain yield response appeared to be the result of warming effects speeding up plant development of phenological stages rather than favoring greater growth of plant organs, which showed an erratic response. However, in the second sowing of 2017 the observed reduced grain yield in ambient temperature plots is attributed to the effects of an early frost event occurring during the grain ripening stage. Thus, a sowing date occurring in early August helped to avoid hailstorms but in addition warming accelerated phenology and apparently provided better temperatures for bean maturation and greater bean grain yield