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Detection of classical swine fever vaccine virus in blood and tissue samples of pigs vaccinated either with a conventional C-strain vaccine or a modified live marker vaccine

Koenig, P., Hoffmann, B., Depner, K.R., Reimann, I., Teifke, J.P., Beer, M.
Veterinary microbiology 2007 v.120 no.3-4 pp. 343-351
detection, Classical swine fever virus, vaccines, hog cholera, blood, animal tissues, swine, vaccination, genome, animal models, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction
Attenuated live classical swine fever (CSF) viruses are the most efficacious vaccines against the disease. However, little is known about the distribution and detection of CSF vaccine viruses in the host. We therefore compared the new recombinant attenuated marker vaccine virus CP7_E2alf with the conventional C-strain vaccine concerning virus isolation, antigen-, and genome-detection in different samples within the first 42 days post-vaccination (p.v.). Leukocytes and several organs such as tonsils, lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, parotis and kidney were also tested using highly sensitive real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques. It was demonstrated that vaccine virus could be detected by live animal sampling only in a few leukocytes samples at very low titres and genome copy numbers within the first 14 days after immunisation. Vaccine virus could also be isolated from individual tonsil samples within the first 6 days after vaccine application. In contrast, vaccine virus genomes were consistently detected in the tonsils up to day 42 by real-time RT-PCR. Distribution, amount of virus and viral genome levels were similar for both tested vaccines. In conclusion, blood samples could be the sample material of choice for detecting CSF wild type virus infection even in vaccinated animals after more than 14 days p.v., while tonsil sampling provided appropriate material for long-term detection of both tested CSF vaccine viruses using real-time RT-PCR methods.