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Improved antioxidant activity of Vitamin E through solubilization in ethanol: A model study with ground beef
- Wills, T.M., Mireles DeWitt, C.A., Sigfusson, H.
- Meat science 2007 v.76 no.2 pp. 308-315
- ground beef, food additives, tocopherols, antioxidants, antioxidant activity, ethanol, oxidative stability, triacylglycerols, lipid content, lipid peroxidation, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, phospholipids, cooked foods, raw meat, food storage, frozen storage, storage time, beef quality, delta-tocopherol
- Previous research has demonstrated that vitamin E (tocopherol) applied to muscle foods using an oil carrier targets the neutral lipid fraction (NLF: triacylglycerols) instead of the polar lipid fraction (PLF: phospholipids) and therefore does not act as an effective antioxidant. This paper demonstrates that δ-tocopherol (TOH) applied using a polar carrier was effectively incorporated into the PLF of ground beef and reduced subsequent TBARs development. TOH was incorporated in the PLF at 2820 ± 231 micrograms TOH/g lipid and in the NLF at 167 ± 66.2 micrograms TOH/g lipid. Cooking ground beef (patties) did not result in loss of absolute amount of δ-tocopherol (5020 ± 975 micrograms vs. 6220 ± 1510 micrograms TOH, respectively). In addition, the development of thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARs) in cooked product was significantly (p<0.05) lowered by TOH incorporation on days 2, 9, 15, and 22.