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Research Note: Effect of butyric acid glycerol esters on ileal and cecal mucosal and luminal microbiota in chickens challenged with Eimeria maxima

Monika Proszkowiec-Weglarz, Katarzyna B. Miska, Lori L. Schreier, Christopher J. Grim, Karen G. Jarvis, Jonathan Shao, Stefan Vaessen, Richard Sygall, Mark C. Jenkins, Stanislaw Kahl, Beverly Russell
Poultry science 2020 v.99 no.10 pp. 5143-5148
bacterial communities, butyric acid, coccidiosis, diet, epithelium, glycerol, ileum, intestinal microorganisms, males, multivariate analysis, oocysts, poultry industry, species diversity, taxonomy
Coccidiosis is one of the most prevalent diseases seen in the poultry industry leading to excessive economic losses. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of butyric acid glycerol esters (BE) on the ileal and cecal microbiota in birds challenged with Eimeria maxima (EM). Ross 708 male broilers were fed a diet supplemented with 0 (control) or 0.25% BE from day 1. On day 21, half of the birds were infected with 10³ EM oocysts. For determing microbiota, ileal and cecal contents and epithelial scrapings were collected at 7 and 10 D postinfection (PI). Alpha diversity of bacterial communities was mostly affected (P < 0.05) by time PI and EM infection. The richness of luminal bacterial populations in the ileum and ceca was affected (P < 0.05) by addition of BE and by time PI × EM × BE interaction, respectively. In the ileal and cecal luminal and mucosal bacterial communities, permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA, unweighted UniFrac) showed significant (P < 0.05) differences because of time PI and interaction between time PI, EM, and BE. Significant (P < 0.05) differences in taxonomic composition at the family level were observed in microbiota of luminal and mucosal populations of the ileum and ceca owing to time PI, EM, BE, and their interactions. The bacterial community present in the cecal lumen was characterized by the lowest number of differential bacteria, whereas the cecal mucosal community was characterized by the highest number of differentially abundant bacteria. In conclusion, our results show that EM infection and time PI has the biggest impact on microbial diversity in the chicken gut. The presence of BE in the diet had a limited effect on gut microbiota.