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All about Toxoplasma gondii infections in pigs: 2009–2020

Jitender P. Dubey, Camila K. Cerqueira-Cézar, Fernando H.A. Murata, Oliver C.H. Kwok, Dolores Hill, Yurong Yang, Chunlei Su
Veterinary parasitology 2020 v.288 pp. 109185
Toxoplasma gondii, curing (food products), disease diagnosis, disease prevalence, disease transmission, food contamination, genotype, microbiological risk assessment, parasites, pork, protozoal infections, ready-to-eat foods, seroprevalence, swine, swine diseases, toxoplasmosis, China
Toxoplasma gondii infections are common in humans and animals worldwide. Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs continues to be of public health concern. Pigs are important for the economy of many countries, particularly, USA, China, and European countries. Among the many food animals, pigs are considered the most important for T. gondii transmission in USA and China because viable parasites have rarely been isolated from beef or indoor raised chickens. Besides public health issues, T. gondii causes outbreaks of clinical toxoplasmosis in pigs in China, associated with a unique genotype of T. gondii (ToxoDB genotype #9 or Chinese 1), rarely found in other countries. The safety of ready to eat pork products with respect to T. gondii infection is a matter of recent debate. Here, we review in detail seroprevalence, prevalence of viable and nonviable T. gondii, epidemiology, risk assessment, diagnosis, and curing of pork products containing T. gondii for the past decade. This review will be of interest to biologists, parasitologists, veterinarians, and public health workers.