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Aerosol transmission from infected swine to ferrets of a swine H3N2 virus collected from an agricultural fair and associated with human variant infections

Kaplan Bryan S., Kimble J.Brian, Chang Jennifer, Anderson Tavis K., Gauger Phillip C., Janas-Martindale Alicia, Killian Mary Lea, Bowman Andrew S., Vincent Amy L.
Journal of virology 2020 v.94 no.6 pp. -15
Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Influenza A virus, aerosols, agricultural exhibitions, droplets, ferrets, fever, genomics, humans, medicine, models, pandemic, prions, respiratory system, risk, swine, virology, viruses, Iowa, Ohio
Aerosol Transmission from Infected Swine to Ferrets of anH3N2 Virus Collected from an Agricultural Fair and Associatedwith Human Variant InfectionsBryan S. Kaplan,aJ. Brian Kimble,aJennifer Chang,aTavis K. Anderson,aPhillip C. Gauger,bAlicia Janas-Martindale,cMary Lea Killian,cAndrew S. Bowman,dAmy L. VincentaaVirus and Prion Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, USDA-ARS, Ames, Iowa, USAbDepartment of Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USAcNational Veterinary Services Laboratories, USDA-APHIS, Ames, Iowa, USAdDepartment of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USAABSTRACTInfluenza A viruses (IAV) sporadically transmit from swine to humans,typically associated with agricultural fairs in the United States. A human seasonal H3virus from the 2010-2011 IAV season was introduced into the U.S. swine populationand termed H3.2010.1 to differentiate it from the previous swine H3 virus. This H3N2lineage became widespread in the U.S. commercial swine population, subsequentlyspilling over into exhibition swine, and caused a majority of H3N2 variant (H3N2v)cases in humans in 2016 and 2017. A cluster of human H3N2v cases were reportedat an agricultural fair in 2017 in Ohio, where 2010.1 H3N2 IAV was concurrently detectedin exhibition swine. Genomic analysis showed that the swine and human isolates werenearly identical. In this study, we evaluated the propensity of a 2010.1 H3N2 IAV (A/swine/Ohio/A01354299/2017 [sw/OH/2017]) isolated from a pig in the agricultural fairoutbreak to replicate in ferrets and transmit from swine to ferret. sw/OH/2017 displayedrobust replication in the ferret respiratory tract, causing slight fever and moderateweight loss. Further, sw/OH/2017 was capable of efficient respiratory droplet transmis-sion from infected pigs to contact ferrets. These findings establish a model for evaluat-ing the propensity of swine IAV to transmit from pig to ferret as a measure of risk to thehuman population. The identification of higher-risk swine strains can then be targetedfor control measures to limit the dissemination at human-swine interfaces to reduce therisk of zoonotic infections and to inform pandemic planning.
Data from: Aerosol transmission from infected swine to ferrets of an H3N2 virus collected from an agricultural fair and associated with human variant infections