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Comparative assessment of Th1 and Th2 cytokines of swamp type buffalo and other bubaline breeds by molecular cloning, sequencing and phylogenetics

Mingala, C.N., Odbileg, R., Konnai, S., Ohashi, K., Onuma, M.
Veterinary immunology and immunopathology 2006 v.113 no.3-4 pp. 348-356
breed differences, protein secondary structure, messenger RNA, buffaloes, alternative splicing, interleukins, phylogeny, amino acid sequences, genotype, nucleotide sequences, genetic variation, interferons
Comparative assessment of Th1 and Th2 cytokines of three bubaline breeds namely swamp buffalo, its crossbreed with riverine buffalo (CB), and the improved breed of Bulgarian Murrah buffalo (BMB), was done by molecular cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The Th1 cytokines analyzed included IL-2, IL-12p35, IL-12p40, and IFN-γ while Th2 cytokines included IL-4 and IL-10. Both groups showed strict conservation in the putative secondary structures and amino acid residues within the tribe Bovini, which indicated functional cross-reactivity. Nucleotide sequence homology ranged from 98.6 to 100.0% and was lowest for IL-12p35. With regard to amino acid sequence, the lowest homology was observed in IL-4 with 97.8%. This substitution was mainly due to differences in mRNA splicing. The phylogenetic relationship of the buffalo breeds was analyzed and showed them as a cluster comprised mainly of species belonging to the order Artiodactyla, including cattle and pigs. A deeper knowledge of these cytokine structures will favor understanding of water buffalo immunology and how much it differs from its closest subspecies and other animals.