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Determination and Comparison of the Lipid Profile and Sodium Content of Gluten-Free and Gluten-Containing Breads from the Spanish Market

Tres, Alba, Tarnovska, Natalia, Varona, Elisa, Quintanilla-Casas, Beatriz, Vichi, Stefania, Gibert, Anna, Vilchez, Elisenda, Guardiola, Francesc
Plant foods for human nutrition 2020 v.75 no.3 pp. 344-354
Helianthus annuus, breads, cholesterol, coconuts, egg products, eggs, fatty acid composition, ingredients, markets, nutrition information, nutritive value, olives, phytosterols, polyunsaturated fatty acids, salt content, sodium, sunflower oil, Spain
The objective is to verify if gluten-free (GF) and gluten-containing (G) breads differ in their sodium content and lipid profile. Samples of GF (n = 20) and G (n = 14) sliced white sandwich bread of commercial brands most frequently consumed in Spain were collected. The fatty acid (FA) composition and the contents of sodium, fat, cholesterol and phytosterols were determined. Sodium, fat and cholesterol contents were significantly higher in GF bread. The FA composition also differed, while G breads declared in most instances the use of sunflower oil as fat ingredient and presented a higher polyunsaturated FA percentage; GF breads declared a wide variety of fats and oils as ingredients (coconut, palm, olive, sunflower, etc.) which was reflected in their FA profile. Cholesterol content was higher in GF bread because five samples declared the use of whole egg, while G samples did not include any egg product in their formulas. Phytosterol content was higher in G bread but its variability was greater in GF bread. In conclusion, nutritional quality of GF bread varied depending on the ingredients used and might be lower than that of G bread. However, these differences in composition could be reduced or eliminated through changes in the formulation of GF bread. Moreover, the comparison of the results obtained in our laboratory for fat and salt content with the declared contents on the labels showed a much higher deviation for GF samples and it can be concluded that the quality of the nutritional information declared was lower in GF samples.