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Apple Polyphenols and Products Formed in the Gut Differently Inhibit Survival of Human Cell Lines Derived from Colon Adenoma (LT97) and Carcinoma (HT29)
- Veeriah, S., Hofmann, T., Glei, M., Dietrich, H., Will, F., Schreier, P., Knaup, B., Pool-Zobel, B.L.
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2007 v.55 no.8 pp. 2892-2900
- apples, polyphenols, quercetin, digestion, metabolites, fermentation, neoplasms, human cell lines, colorectal neoplasms, adenoma
- Colorectal tumor risks could be reduced by polyphenol-rich diets that inhibit cell growth. Here, apple polyphenols were studied for effects on the survival of colon adenoma (LT97) and carcinoma-derived (HT29) cell lines. Three apple extracts (AEs) from harvest years 2002-2004 were isolated (AE02, AE03, and AE04) and fermented in vitro with human fecal flora. Extracts and fermentation products were analyzed for polyphenols with HPLC. The cells were treated with AEs (0-850 g/mL) or fermented AEs (F-AEs, 0-9%), and survival was measured by DNA staining. All AEs contained high amounts of polyphenols (311-534 mg/g) and reduced cell survival (in LT97 > HT29). AE03 was most potent, possibly because it contained more quercetin compounds. Fermentation of AEs resulted in an increase of short chain fatty acids, and polyphenols were degraded. The F-AEs were ~3-fold less bioactive than the corresponding AEs, pointing to a loss of chemoprotective properties through fermentation.