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Resistance of Botrytis cinerea Isolates from Vegetable Crops to Anilinopyrimidine, Phenylpyrrole, Hydroxyanilide, Benzimidazole, and Dicarboximide Fungicides

Myresiotis, C.K., Karaoglanidis, G.S., Tzavella-Klonari, K.
Plant disease 2007 v.91 no.4 pp. 407-413
mechanism of action, Botrytis cinerea, fungal diseases of plants, benzimidazole fungicides, cross resistance, strain differences, regression analysis, dicarboximide fungicides, fungicide resistance, plant pathogenic fungi, Crete
During February 2005, 55 single-spore isolates of Botrytis cinerea were collected at the end of the season from vegetable crops grown in 18 greenhouses on the island of Crete, Greece. They were tested for sensitivity to the anilinopyrimidine fungicides pyrimethanil and cyprodinil, the hydroxyanilide fungicide fenhexamid, the phenylpyrrole fungicide fludioxonil, the dicarboximide fungicide iprodione, and the benzimidazole fungicide carbendazim. Results of the study showed the existence of benzimidazole- and dicarboximide-resistant strains at frequencies of 61.8 and 18%, respectively. Moreover, for first time, the development of resistance to anilinopyrimidine fungicides by B. cinerea was detected in greenhouse vegetable crops on the island of Crete. High resistance frequencies of 49.1 and 57.4% were observed for pyrimethanil and cyprodinil, respectively. In addition, one isolate was found to be resistant to the hydroxyanilide fungicide fenhexamid, while no strains resistant to the phenylpyrrole fungicide were detected. Among the 55 isolates tested, 13 were resistant only to carbendazim, 6 were resistant only to anilinopyrimidines, 3 were resistant to both benzimidazoles and dicarboximides, 17 were resistant to both benzimidazoles and anilinopyrimidines, 6 were resistant to both dicarboximides and anilinopyrimidines, 1 was simultaneously resistant to benzimidazoles, dicarboximides, and anilinopyrimidines, 1 was resistant to both anilinopyrimidines and hydroxyanilides, and 8 were sensitive to all fungicides tested. A strong cross-resistance relationship was found between the two anilinopyrimidine fungicides tested when log transformed EC(50) values of the isolates were subjected to a linear regression analysis (r = 0.71). Despite the detection of several phenotypes with simultaneous resistance to chemically unrelated active ingredients, in none of the remaining possible fungicide pairs was there observed any kind of cross-resistance relationship.