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Olive oil preparation determines the atherosclerotic protection in apolipoprotein E knockout mice

Acin, S., Navarro, M.A., Perona, J.S., Arbones-Mainar, J.M., Surra, J.C., Guzman, M.A., Carnicer, R., Arnal, C., Orman, I., Segovia, J.C.
Journal of nutritional biochemistry 2007 v.18 no.6 pp. 418-424
olive oil, olives, monounsaturated fatty acids, Olea europaea, cultivars, cardioprotective effect, cholesteremic effect, atherosclerosis, hypercholesterolemia, risk reduction, health promotion, phenolic compounds, squalene, cholesterol metabolism, blood serum, triacylglycerols, high density lipoprotein, prostaglandins, mice, animal disease models, postprandial state, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein
Oils enriched in monounsaturated fatty acids do not seem to behave similarly in protecting against the development of atherosclerosis in animal models, which has been attributed to the presence of soluble phenolic compounds. To test the relevance of other components of oils in the prevention of atherosclerosis, two olive oils from the same cultivar devoid of soluble phenolic compounds were prepared using different procedures (pressure or centrifugation), characterized and fed to apolipoprotein E-deficient mice as 10% (w/w) of their diet. The 2 olive oils had similar levels of monounsaturated fatty acids and squalene, but they differed in their content of linoleic, phytosterols, tocopherols, triterpenes and waxes, which were particularly enriched in the test olive oil obtained by centrifugation. In mice that received a diet enriched in the olive oil derived through centrifugation, the progression of atherosclerosis was delayed compared to the mice that received standard olive oil. That effect was associated with decreases in plasma triglycerides, total and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and isoprostane 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α. Our results clearly indicate that the preparation of olive oil is crucial in determining its antiatherosclerotic effect, which extends beyond the presence of phenolic compounds. The test olive oil exerted its antiatherosclerotic effects by modifying plasma lipids and oxidative stress, and it might be a good candidate to replace other fats in functional foods.