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Effects of Harvest-Aids on Seed Nutrition in Soybean under Midsouth USA Conditions

Nacer Bellaloui, H. Arnold Bruns, Hamed K. Abbas, Daniel K. Fisher, Alemu Mengistu
Plants 2020 v.9 no.8 pp. -
Glycine max, amino acid composition, amino acids, carfentrazone, defoliants, defoliation, desiccants, developmental stages, filling period, fructose, glyphosate, harvesting, lipid content, oleic acid, paraquat, plant proteins, preharvest treatment, protein content, seed oils, seed quality, seeds, sodium chlorate, soybeans, sugar content, Southeastern United States
Interest in using harvest aids (defoliants or crop desiccants) such as paraquat, carfentrazone-ethyl, glyphosate, and sodium chlorate (NaClO₃) have become increasingly important to assure harvest efficiency, producer profit, and to maintain seed quality. However, information on the effects of harvest aids on seed nutrition (composition) (protein, oil, fatty acids, sugars, and amino acids) in soybean is very limited. The objective of this research was to investigate the influence of harvest aids on seed protein, oil, fatty acids, sugars, and amino acids in soybean. Our hypothesis was that harvest aid may influence seed nutrition, especially at R6 as at R6 the seeds may still undergo biochemical changes. Field experiments were conducted in 2012 and 2013 under Midsouth USA environmental conditions in which harvest aids were applied at R6 (seed-fill) and R7 (yellow pods) growth stages. Harvest aids applied included an untreated control, 0.28 kg ai ha⁻¹ of paraquat, 0.28 kg ai ha⁻¹ of paraquat, and 1.015 kg ai ha⁻¹ of carfentrazone-ethyl (AIM); 6.72 kg ai ha⁻¹ sodium chlorate, 1.015 kg ai ha⁻¹ carfentrazone-ethyl; and 2.0 kg ae ha⁻¹ glyphosate. Results showed that the application of harvest aids at either R6 or R7 resulted in the alteration of some seed composition such as protein, oil, oleic acid, fructose, and little effects on amino acids. In addition, harvest aids affected seed composition constituents differently depending on year and growth stage. This research demonstrated the possible alteration of some nutrients by harvest aids. This research helps growers and scientists to advance the understanding and management of harvest aids and investigate possible effects of harvest aids on seed nutrition.