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Toxoplasma gondii infections in dogs: 2009-2020

Jitender P. Dubey, Fernando H.A. Murata, Camila K. Cerqueira-Cézar, Oliver C.H. Kwok, Yurong Yang, Chunlei Su
Veterinary parasitology 2020 v.287 pp. 109223
DNA, Toxoplasma gondii, dermatitis, disease diagnosis, dog diseases, dogs, feces, genetic markers, genetic variation, immunocompromised population, meat, oocysts, seroprevalence, toxoplasmosis, Brazil, China, New York, Nigeria, Vietnam
Toxoplasma gondii infections are common in humans and animals worldwide. The present review summarizes worldwide information on the prevalence of clinical and subclinical infections, epidemiology, diagnosis, and genetic diversity of T. gondii in dogs (Canis familiaris) from 2009−2020. Seroprevalence estimates of T. gondii worldwide were tabulated. Reports of high seroprevalence in canine population and high congenital transmission of T. gondii in dogs in Brazil are reviewed. Most reports from China were published in Chinese, and these reports are now summarized here. Dogs have an additional importance in some countries such as China, Vietnam, and Nigeria; whereas in many cities dog meat is sold commercially for human consumption and given to felids, and transmission of T. gondii could occur if meat is not cooked properly. Dogs can ingest T. gondii-infected cat feces and these oocysts remain viable after passage through the digestive tract of the dog; T. gondii DNA was found in feces of dogs from New York City parks in USA. Most clinical canine cases of toxoplasmosis were in immunosuppressed dogs, and ulcerative dermatitis was one of the main presentations. Genetic diversity based on PCR-RFLP markers using DNA derived from 133 viable T. gondii isolates from dogs from several countries is discussed. T. gondii strains from Asia and Americas were more genetically diverse than those from Africa. This review will be of interest to biologists, parasitologists, veterinarians, and public health workers.