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Nutrient concentration in soil water extracts and soybean nutrition in response to lime and gypsum applications to an acid Oxisol under no-till system

Zambrosi, Fernando César Bachiega, Alleoni, Luís Reynaldo Ferracciú, Caires, Eduardo Fávero
Nutrient cycling in agroecosystems 2007 v.79 no.2 pp. 169-179
Glycine max, soybeans, no-tillage, liming materials, liming, gypsum, soil amendments, nutrient content, soil water, soil fertility, soil solution, crop yield, field experimentation, calcium, magnesium, sulfates, cations, exchangeable calcium, exchangeable magnesium, Brazil
No-till system (NTS) occupies 20 million hectares with grain crops in Brazil. However, calcium deficiency and aluminum toxicity can limit crop yields in many soils, and liming, associated to gypsum application, is an option for improving soil management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of lime and gypsum application on the composition of soil water extracts of a clayey Rhodic Hapludox, cultivated with soybean under NTS. The experiment had a randomized complete block design with split-plots. The plots consisted of lime treatments (either a single rate of 4.5 t ha-¹ or three annual rates of 1.5 t ha-¹) surface-applied or incorporated at 0.2 m depth. The subplots received surface applications of gypsum (3, 6 and 9 t ha-¹). Liming increased total calcium and magnesium concentrations and the magnesium free Form activity (aMg²⁺) in the water extracts. The effect of liming on Mg was observed at deeper layers of the soil profile. Gypsum increased total concentration and free forms activities at calcium (aCa²⁺) and sulfate, but decreased to magnesium in the 0.05-0.2 m soil layer. Part of Mg lost from these upper layers probably contributed to increased Mg in the subsoil (0.4-0.8 m). Free forms activities at the aluminum, calcium, magnesium and sulfate were lower than the total concentrations, mainly for aluminum. Ca and Mg concentrations in soybean leaf tissue were positively correlated to the aCa²⁺ and aMg²⁺ in the soil water extract. Soybean grain yield was negatively correlated to both Mn total concentration and activity (free form) in the soil water extract, but it was positively correlated to sulfate (total concentration and free form activity) in the subsoil layer and to the Ca total concentration in the upper layer (0-0.05 m). It is concluded that lime and gypsum ameliorate soybean grain yield under NTS.