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Characterization of multidrug resistant Salmonella recovered from diseased animals

Zhao, S., McDermott, P.F., White, D.G., Qaiyumi, S., Friedman, S.L., Abbott, J.W., Glenn, A., Ayers, S.L., Post, K.W., Fales, W.H.
Veterinary microbiology 2007 v.123 no.1-3 pp. 122-132
phenotype, Salmonella, swine diseases, serotypes, multiple drug resistance, minimum inhibitory concentration, strain differences, beta-lactamase, salmonellosis, genes, nucleotide sequences, anti-infective agents, genetic relationships, swine
Three hundred and eighty Salmonella isolates recovered from animal diagnostic samples obtained from four state veterinary diagnostic laboratories (AZ, NC, MO, and TN) between 2002 and 2003 were tested for antimicrobial susceptibilities and further characterized for bla(CMY) beta-lactamase genes, class 1 integrons and genetic relatedness using PFGE. Forty-seven serovars were identified, the most common being S. Typhimurium (26%), S. Heidelberg (9%), S, Dublin (8%), S. Newport (8%), S. Derby (7%), and S. Choleraesuis (7%). Three hundred and thirteen (82%) isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, and 265 (70%) to three or more antimicrobials. Resistance was most often observed to tetracycline (78%), followed by streptomycin (73%), sulfamethoxazole (68%), and ampicillin (54%), and to a lesser extent chloramphenicol (37%), kanamycin (37%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (20%), and ceftiofur (17%). With regards to animal of origin, swine Salmonella isolates displayed the highest rate of resistance, being resistant to at least one antimicrobial (92%), followed by those recovered from turkey (91%), cattle (77%), chicken (68%), and equine (20%). Serovars commonly showing multidrug resistance (MDR) to >or=9 antimicrobials were S. Uganda (100%), S. Agona (79%), and S. Newport (62%), compared to S. Heidelberg (11%) and S. Typhimurium (7%). Class-1 integrons were detected in 43% of all isolates, and were found to contain aadA, aadB, dhfr, cmlA and sat1 gene cassettes alone or in various combinations. All ceftiofur resistant isolates (n = 66) carried the bla(CMY) beta-lactamase gene. A total of 230 PFGE patterns were generated among the 380 isolates tested using XbaI, indicating extensive genetic diversity across recovered Salmonella serovars, however, several MDR clones were repeatedly recovered from different diseased animals.