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Insecticide Resistance in Potential Vector Mosquitoes for West Nile Virus in Japan

Kasai, S., Shono, T., Komagata, O., Tsuda, Y., Kobayashi, M., Motoki, M., Kashima, I., Tanikawa, T., Yoshida, M., Tanaka, I.
Journal of medical entomology 2007 v.44 no.5 pp. 822-829
Culex pipiens pallens, Culex pipiens form molestus, Culex quinquefasciatus, insect vectors, West Nile virus, insecticide resistance, insecticides, larvicides, etofenprox, lethal dose, cross resistance, Japan
Culex pipiens complex is the significant vector mosquito of West Nile virus. To take stock of the current situation of insecticide susceptibilities and design an ideal mosquito control strategy, we collected Culex pipiens pallens Coquillet, Culex pipiens form molestus Forskal, and Culex quinquefasciatus Say from fields in Japan and conducted bioassays for five larvicides (fenitrothion, temephos, etofenprox, diflubenzuron, and pyriproxyfen) by using a larval dipping method. Among five insecticides tested, obvious reduced susceptibilities were observed for etofenprox, which is the only pyrethroid compound registered as a larvicide in Japan. Twenty-two of 56 colonies exhibited a >10% survival rate at the etofenprox concentration of 5.7 μg/ml, which is a 10 times higher concentration of the working solution. The LC50 of a colony collected from Fukuoka prefecture for etofenprox exceeded 60 μg/ml (resistance ratio >2,307), and this colony also exhibited cross-resistance to other pyrethroids, permethrin (299-fold) and phenothrin (1,200-fold). The insect growth regulators diflubenzuron and pyriproxyfen were found to be sufficiently effective enough to control Culex larvae present, but decreased sensitivities to these insecticides were slightly detected in some colonies of Cx. p. form molestus collected from urban areas. Several etofenprox-resistant colonies of Cx. p. form molestus exhibited simultaneously decreased susceptibilities to other insecticides, including temephos, diflubenzuron, and pyriproxyfen.