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Recent epidemiologic and clinical importance of Toxoplasma gondii infections in marine mammals: 2009–2020

Author:
Jitender P. Dubey, Fernando H.A. Murata, Camila K. Cerqueira-Cézar, Oliver C.H. Kwok, Michael E. Grigg
Source:
Veterinary parasitology 2020 v.288 pp. 109296
ISSN:
0304-4017
Subject:
Enhydra lutris nereis, Monachus schauinslandi, Toxoplasma gondii, endangered species, environmental exposure, epidemiology, foodborne illness, genetic variation, genotype, marine mammals, oocysts, sentinel animals, toxoplasmosis
Abstract:
Toxoplasma gondii infections are common in humans and animals worldwide. T. gondii causes mortality in several species of marine mammals, including threatened Southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris) and endangered Hawaiian monk seals (Monachus schauinslandi). Marine mammals are now considered sentinels for environmental exposure to protozoan agents contaminating marine waters, including T. gondii oocysts. Marine mammals also serve as food for humans and can result in foodborne T. gondii infections in humans. The present review summarizes worldwide information on the prevalence of clinical and subclinical infections, epidemiology, and genetic diversity of T. gondii infecting marine mammals in the past decade. The role of genetic types of T. gondii and clinical disease is discussed.
Agid:
7161505
Handle:
10113/7161505