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Diet-induced changes in bacterial communities in the jejunum and their associations with bile acids in Angus beef cattle

Liu Jianan, Liu Fang, Cai Wentao, Jia Cunling, Ying Bai, Yanghua He, Weiyun Zhu, Li Robert W., Song Jiuzhou
Animal microbiome 2020 v.2 no.33 pp. -
Angus, bacterial communities, beef cattle, bile acids, biomarkers, calves, cattle feeding, cattle feeds, community structure, diet, fecal bacteria, grain-fed livestock, grass-fed livestock, intestinal microorganisms, jejunum, microbiome, species diversity, weaning
Background: The small intestine, while serving as the main absorption organ, also possesses a unique microbial environment and holds the critical function of conversion of primary bile acids. Bile acids are, in turn, able to regulate microbiome structure and promote the growth of bacteria that convert primary bile acids to secondary bile acids. However, in beef cattle, few studies have explored the microbial compositions of the jejunum and its relationships with bile acids. We hypothesize that microbial compositions in the intestine are influenced by diets and also related to bile acids. Results: We demonstrated that the dietary effect influences on the intestinal microbiome can be observed in early stages of young beef cattle, shortly after weaning. A significantly higher level of microbial diversity was evidenced in both the intestine and feces of grass-fed animals comparing to grain-fed cattle. Top 20 essential genera were obtained with random forest analysis on the fecal microbiome to identify candidate microbial biomarkers. Moreover, the jejunal microbiome of adult Angus beef cattle exhibited significant differences in microbial composition and metabolic potential under different diets. Global balances and microbial signatures of bile acids were identified. Conclusions: The findings from this study provided deep insights into microbiome compositions in fecal and jejunal and identified relationships between jejunal microbiome and bile acids with diets in Angus beef cattle. Our results should help us better understand grass-fed beef in production practice and potential health benefits.