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Textile dyes Maxilon blue 5G and Reactive blue 203 induce acute toxicity and DNA damage during embryonic development of Danio rerio

Mine Köktürk, Fikret Altindağ, Gunes Ozhan, Mehmet Harbi Çalimli, Mehmet Salih Nas
Comparative biochemistry and physiology 2021 v.242 pp. 108947
DNA damage, Danio rerio, abnormal development, acute toxicity, aquatic environment, brain, dyes, ecosystems, edema, embryogenesis, fabrics, genotoxicity, industrial wastewater, larval development, pericardium, tail, teratogenicity, textile industry, yolk sac
Common textile dyes used in various industrial sectors are organic compounds and considered for the aquatic environment as pollutants. The textile dye industry is one of the main sectors that have serious impacts on the environment due to a large amount of wastewater released into the ecosystem. Maxilon blue 5G (MB-5G) and Reactive Blue 203 (RB-203) are widely used textile dyes. However, their potential toxicity on living organisms remains to be elucidated. Here, we investigate the acute toxicity and genotoxicity of MB-5G and RB-203 dyes using the zebrafish embryos/larvae. Embryos treated with each dye for 96 h revealed LC₅₀ values of acute toxicity as 166.04 mg L⁻¹ and 278.32 mg L⁻¹ for MB-5G and RB 203, respectively. When exposed to MB-5G and RB-203 at different concentrations (1, 10, and 100 mg L⁻¹) for 96 h, the expression of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of oxidative DNA damage, significantly increased in brain tissues as compared to control. MB-5G and RB-203 resulted in common developmental abnormalities including tail malformation, microphthalmia, pericardial edema, curved body axis, and yolk sac/pericardial edemas. Moreover, at its highest dose (100 mg L⁻¹), RB-203 caused premature hatching after 48 h, while MG-5G did not. Our results collectively reveal that the textile dyes MB-5G and RB-203 cause genotoxicity and teratogenicity during embryonic and larval development of zebrafish. Thus, it is necessary to eliminate these compounds from wastewater or reduce their concentrations to safe levels before discharging the textile industry wastewater into the environment.