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The effects of fish meal replacement with ultra-micro ground mixed plant proteins (uPP) in practical diet on growth, gut and liver health of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

Xie, Mingxu, Xie, Yadong, Li, Yu, Zhou, Wei, Zhang, Zhen, Yang, Yalin, Olsen, Rolf Erik, Ran, Chao, Zhou, Zhigang
Aquaculture reports 2021 v.19 pp. 100558
Citrobacter, Cyprinus carpio, Fusobacteria, Shewanella, animal growth, antinutritional factors, aquaculture, aquaculture feeds, blood serum, carp, diet, fish health, fish meal, genes, growth performance, inflammation, intestinal microorganisms, intestines, liver, occludins, plant proteins
Plant proteins are widely used for fish meal replacement in aquafeeds, but anti-nutritional factors in plant protein reduce fish growth performance and impair fish health. The present work aimed to study the effects of improving fish meal replacement percentage with ultra-micro ground mixed plant proteins (uPP) on growth, gut and liver health of common carp. Carps were fed with a practical basal diet with partial fish meal replacement by plant proteins or the basal diet supplemented with 2.5 % or 5% uPP for 16-week. Results indicated that uPP addition did not affect growth and survival of common carp at a supplementation level up to 5% (p > 0.05). However, 5% uPP up-regulated the intestinal expression of inflammation related genes (p < 0.05) and reduced HIF-1α expression (p < 0.05). Moreover, dietary 5% uPP increased serum ALT (p = 0.06) and AST level (p < 0.05) and up-regulated liver expressions of inflammation related genes (p < 0.05). The Simpson diversity index of gut microbiota was lower in 5% uPP group compared to control (p < 0.05). The relative abundance of Fusobacteria and Cetobacterium was lower (p < 0.05), while Proteobacteria including Shewanella and Citrobacter was higher in the 5% uPP group compared to control (p < 0.05). In contrast, 2.5 % uPP did not increase inflammatory and injury parameters in fish intestine and liver, but rather improved the expression of occludin and defensin in the intestine compared with control (p < 0.05). Moreover, no significant differences were found in gut microbiota between 2.5 % uPP group and control. Together, our study suggests that low-level uPP addition can be adopted to further improve fish meal replacement, while dietary 5% uPP impairs gut and liver health of common carp and negatively affects intestinal microbiota.