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Pseudorabies virus induces a rapid up-regulation of nitric oxide synthases in the nervous system of swine

Marcaccini, A., Lopez-Pena, M., Bermudez, R., Quiroga, M.I., Guerrero, F.H., Nieto, J.M., Aleman, N.
Veterinary microbiology 2007 v.125 no.3-4 pp. 232-243
pathogenesis, disease course, disease resistance, immune system, biochemical mechanisms, kinetics, nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthase, isomers, neurons, endothelium, swine, Suid herpesvirus 1, immune response, physiological regulation, Aujeszky disease
Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical gas with important roles in the host's immune response against viral infections. In this study, we examined the kinetics and distribution of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression during the early steps of infection of the porcine nervous system by the alphaherpesvirus pseudorabies virus (PRV). To this end, we examined changes in the expression of the three major NOS isoforms, neuronal NOS (nNOS), endothelial NOS (eNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS), by immunohistochemistry in the trigeminal ganglia and brain of pigs inoculated intranasally with a virulent PRV strain. The results obtained show that infection of the porcine nervous system by PRV induced a rapid and progressive increment in NOS expression that coincided in timing, location, and magnitude with those of virus propagation in the nervous tissue. A major finding of this study was that PRV caused not only nNOS and iNOS induction in a variety of cell types, but also eNOS up-regulation in endothelial cells and neurons; therefore, all possible sources of NO are activated and probably contribute to the overproduction of NO during infection with the neurotropic alphaherpesvirus PRV in its natural host.